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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced free ewa king north carolina sex chat multiple talkers both sexes representing two dialects: Midland dialect in Ohio same as listeners' dialect and Southern dialect in Western North Carolina. Participants' responses were analyzed using al detection theory.

Listeners with dyslexia were less sensitive to talker dialect than listeners with average reading ability. Children were less sensitive to dialect than adults. Under stimulus uncertainty, listeners with average reading ability were biased toward Ohio dialect, whereas listeners with dyslexia were unbiased in their responses. Talker sex interacted with sensitivity and bias differently for listeners with dyslexia than for listeners with average reading ability.

The correlations between dialect sensitivity and phonological memory scores were strongest for adults with dyslexia.

Dyslexia limits the ability to categorize talker dialect

The imply that the phonological deficit in dyslexia arises from impaired access to intact phonological representations rather than from poorly specified representations. It can be pd that the impeded access to implicit long-term memory representations for indexical dialect information is due to less efficient operations in working memory, including deficiencies in utilizing talker normalization processes.

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Dyslexia is a lifelong complex neurobiological condition that is characterized by difficulty with accurate and fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Research exploring the phonological deficit in dyslexia has revealed three correlated yet distinct aspects of phonological ability impairment that are most relevant to the phonological processing of spoken language and the development of written language skills: phonological awareness, lexical retrieval, and phonological memory.

Lexical retrieval is the ability to quickly retrieve the phonological forms of words from long-term memory.

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Any free ewa king north carolina sex chat of these processes, which are believed to occur within a specific component of working memory called the phonological loop Baddeley, might be the source of the phonological memory deficit found in individuals with dyslexia Brady, The deficit might arise from problems with perception or problems in the initial phonetic encoding of correctly perceived information.

As an alternative, free ewa king north carolina sex chat deficit might stem from a limitation in rehearsing and retrieving information in a phonetic code. Ramus and Szenkovits more recently proposed that the phonological processing deficit in dyslexia emerges as a function of increased task demands when working memory is involved and does not arise from the underlying phonological representations, which are intact.

In particular, the deficit is manifested in tasks that load heavily on working memory and require metalinguistic awareness or rapid processing. This implies that aspects of phonological processing including phonetic encoding, rehearsal, and retrieval involve more resource allocation in individuals with dyslexia. An increase in processing effort may interfere with storing information in working memory within the central-storage capacity limits Cowan,or, relatedly, in the episodic buffer component of Baddeley's working memory model.

In this article, we adopt the view that the phonological deficit in dyslexia arises from impaired access to intact phonological representations rather than from poorly specified representations Boets et al. The difficulties with accessing phonological representations may arise, in part, from deficiencies in working memory processes that impede phonetic coding and constrain the access to information stored in long-term memory.

The aim of the current article is to ascertain whether the presence of extensive indexical variation in speech is more detrimental to performance of individuals with dyslexia relative to participants with average reading ability. Indexical information pertains to those aspects of variability in speech that are copresent with the linguistic information and that cue both biological and social attributes about a talker, such as age, sex, regional dialect or foreign accent, emotional state, or socioeconomic background. More recent models of the mental lexicon have included these indexical or episodic features in the underlying representations, which contain feature slots for both linguistic and indexical information Goldinger,; Johnson,; Pierrehumbert, However, it may be the case that the spoken word recognition system treats the linguistic and indexical variability differently.

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Our goal in this article is to determine whether dyslexia limits, in some way, access to those indexical representations that cue regional dialects. The findings of the current study will contribute to a better understanding of a the sources of phonological ability impairment in dyslexia and b the nature of phonological memory deficit, which may also include deficient encoding of indexical cues in free ewa king north carolina sex chat.

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Talker and linguistic information inevitably overlap in spoken language. For example, typical listeners are found to be slower and less accurate in identifying speech sounds when listening to several talkers in a speech perception task as opposed to a single talker K. When the talker changes unpredictably, listeners usually experience increased difficulty encoding words in memory because rapid perceptual adjustment is required to reduce talker interference.

This perceptual adjustment, operationally termed talker normalization for a review and discussion of normalization processes, see Pisoni,is crucial in building associations between the nuances of an individual talker's speech and the listener's phonological representations of speech sounds encoded in long-term memory. In particular, listeners with dyslexia were deficient in recognizing different voices of unfamiliar talkers in English, which was in contrast to control participants, whose accuracy was ificantly greater.

These indicated that when both listener groups had access to stored phonological representations in their native language, the discrepancies between the listeners with dyslexia and listeners with average reading ability were due to their differential abilities in utilizing talker normalization processes. That is, adults with average reading ability were able to perceptually adjust to individual talker characteristics and retain the nuances of the talkers' voices in working memory in order to associate these peculiarities with stored phonological representations of speech sounds.

Listeners with dyslexia, being unable to detect consistent deviations between the talker-specific phonetic variation and their stored abstract representations, were limited in this ability. The differences between the listeners with dyslexia and listeners with average reading ability were eliminated when neither group had access to stored phonological representations in Mandarin and thus were unable to utilize the correspondence between the phonetic variation in talker voices and the underlying phonological representation.

In a second study, Perrachione, Del Tufo, Ghosh, et al. Speech of a single talker is produced with the same idiosyncratic and consistent features, as opposed to the more variable speech characteristics of multiple talkers.

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The relative constancy of phonetic variability in the productions of a single talker in strong adaptive neural processes related to talker normalization. Indeed, controls with average reading ability displayed extensive adaptation to the same single talker in a one-talker condition as opposed to four different talkers in a multiple-talker conditionindicating strong talker normalization effects. However, participants with dyslexia exhibited limited adaptation and were unable to utilize the consistent and predictable indexical features and low phonetic variability in a single talker to establish the phonetic—phonemic correspondences during a speech perception task.

Taken together, these indicate that phonological processing in listeners with dyslexia is less efficient and more physiologically expensive relative to controls with average reading ability who share a common native language. The inability to fully utilize talker normalization in speech processing seems to impair access to abstract phonological representations in dyslexia, interfering with the development of sound-to-letter mapping in reading.

The current study examined a specific type of perceptual talker normalization free ewa king north carolina sex chat relies on implicit long-term memory associated with exposure to and experiences with phonetic variation in spoken dialects Pisoni, Moreover, lifetime experience with a given dialect through prolonged exposure to the regionally accented variant le to a native-dialect advantage in phonological processing.

Once an individual's perceptual system becomes attuned to the systematic phonetic variation within a dialect, efficient talker normalization involves integration of both talker idiosyncrasies and the dynamic features of the spoken dialect. We hypothesized that, compared with controls with average reading ability, adults with dyslexia would be less sensitive to dialect features in the speech of multiple talkers. As a consequence, the increased processing effort in listeners with dyslexia relative to controls with average reading ability will result in their comparatively lower ability to categorize talker dialect.

The second goal of the free ewa king north carolina sex chat study was to determine the extent to which school-age children with dyslexia, relative to children with average reading ability, have developed sensitivity to dialect features when presented with extensive between-talkers variability.

However, research on children's perception of talker variability in relation to regional dialects is scant. Their ability to cope with talker variability seems to be still maturing at this age. In particular, their perceptual decisions are comparatively less consistent, most likely due to their less efficient encoding of acoustic—phonetic information in the speech of multiple talkers and relative inexperience with regional variation in speech.

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However, despite their lower performance scores, children with average reading ability in the Jacewicz and Fox study identified vowels in their native dialects more accurately than vowels in the nonnative dialects, manifesting native-dialect advantage. In the current study, children with dyslexia were expected to perform more poorly than children with average reading ability, and both child groups were predicted to underperform compared with the adults due to their maturing abilities to cope with between-talkers variability and relative inexperience with regional variation in speech.

There were 80 participants in the study. There were 10 male and 10 female participants in each group. All of the children attended school and ranged from fifth grade to eighth grade. All participants were lifelong residents of central Ohio and native speakers of the dialect of American English spoken in that region.

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The study protocol, including the consent, assent, and parental consent forms, was approved by the institutional review board at The Ohio State University. The children with dyslexia a had received a formal diagnosis of dyslexia from a qualified professional, b demonstrated a history of difficulty decoding reading and encoding spelling written language, and c were currently being served under an individualized education plan with reading and spelling goals or utilized a Section plan under the Americans with Disabilities Act with accommodations for reading and spelling.

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The children and adults with average reading ability had no history of difficulty learning to read or spell and no current difficulties reading material appropriate for their age and education level. All adults were, at minimum, high school graduates.

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The CTOPP-2 scores, displayed in Table 1are of interest because the test measures three phonological processing abilities that are related to reading ability: phonological awareness, rapid symbolic naming, and phonological memory Wagner et al. Composite scores are reported as standard scores. Subtest scores are reported as scaled scores.

Meaningful short sentences selected from spontaneous conversations of 40 talkers 20 from Ohio and 20 from North Carolina were the stimuli in the perception test. There were 10 male talkers and 10 female talkers in each group. The Ohio talkers were born and raised in Central Ohio and spoke the Midland variety of American English, which was also the dialect of the listeners in the current study. These talkers were a subset of the talkers included in a larger recorded corpus of regional variation e.

The talkers ranged in age from 52 to 68 years. The mean ages of the talkers from Ohio were Each talker produced two sentences for a total of 80 sentences from all 40 talkers.

A complete set of sentences used in the study is included in the Appendix. The sentences did not contain semantic cues suggestive of the geographic region or background of the talkers. The complete stimulus set was auditorily checked by the experimenters to ensure that there were no dysfluencies present and that the speech was appropriate for each dialect.

All sound files were equated for root-mean-square amplitude.

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The experimental task was a forced-choice identification task. The randomized speech samples were delivered diotically over Sennheiser Wedemark, Germany HD headphones in one block at a comfortable listening level. Upon hearing each sentence, the listener responded by clicking with the mouse on one of two boxes on the computer screen that displayed the two responses: Ohio and North Carolina.

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The participants were instructed that they would hear one sentence at a time and had to decide whether the sentence was produced by an Ohio talker or a North Carolina talker. No repetitions were allowed, and the listeners were asked to guess if they were uncertain about which response to choose.

Each listener was tested individually, and the experiment was self-paced.

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For familiarization with the task, an eight-token practice run was administered to each listener prior to the experiment. Both the sentences and talkers in the practice were different from those in the experiment. No feedback about the accuracy of the listener's responses was provided on either the practice block or the actual experiment.

However, as is well known, percentage correct scores do not represent performance well because sensitivity to stimulus differences is not separable from the response bias used in making identification judgments. To better understand the above categorization decisions, participants' responses were analyzed using al detection theory, which allows for separating listeners' sensitivity to dialect from their response bias D. The responses were initially measured in terms of hits and false alarms. The correct categorization of an Ohio talker was a hit, and the categorization of a North Carolina talker as an Ohio talker was a false alarm.

This choice was made because Ohio was the most common dialect heard by the listeners who grew up in Central Ohio. Note that the correct categorization of the North Carolina talker as a hit, and selection of an Ohio talker as a North Carolina talker to be a false alarm, would produce equivalent.

To further investigate potential differences between the strategies of listeners with dyslexia and listeners with average reading ability in terms of their inclination to respond Ohio rather than North Carolinathe responses were analyzed for the effects of listener bias.