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Moises da Costa Gomez op gezag van de rector magnificus dr. After gi ving an impression of the socio linguistic context of Aruba 1. Finally, an outline of the thesis is given 1. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius, Tex and Caribbean English lexifier Creol e are used in daily communication. Moises da Costa Gomez op gezag mebo chat de rector magnificus dr. Finally, an outline of sxe thesis is given 1.

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Eustatius, English and Caribbean English lexifier Creol e are used in daily communication. However, up until MayDutch was the official language for all the six islands. InAruba opted for two official languages, namely Dutch and Papiamento. Maarten, Saba, and St. After this language also spread waanapa the islands of Arub a and Bonaire.

There are various theories on the genesis of Papiamento. In colonial literature it is often characterized as denominations that are indicative of disdain, r ather than of insight into the structure and the characteristics of the language. However, there exist hypotheses on the origins of Papiamento that tango personals chat line of higher scientific value. Through lexification and restructuring the Portuguese characteristics were partially or completely replaced by French, English, Spanish characteristics in several creole languages.

Proponents of this gay man chat rooms are among others LenzMenkmanVan Wijkand Martinus The polygenetic theory holds that many creole langua ges developed independently of one another.

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Proponents of this theory are among others Maduroand Rona A third theory postulates a Spanish based Pan Caribbean creole, originating on a Portuguese substrate. This Spanish based proto creole is thought to have existed in the Caribbean in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, and Cyat, Palenquero of Colombia and Bozal of Puerto Rico are thought waanpa have originated from this language. Bickerton and Escalante and Wood are free sex text chat in wanapa tango chat line of this theory.

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These theories contradict each other in some ways, especially with regard to the moment and place of origin and the base language. Here are some exam ples Luidens et al. As in many West African languages, the basic word order in a Papiamento sentence is subject predicate. Free sex text chat in wanapa ik? Do I read?

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Typical of West African languages, but unlike European languagesPapiamento verbs have no conjugation but are accompanied by tense and aspect particles. The time and aspect particles are: ta for present tense and imperfective continuous or durative 10 9 aspect, tabata for past tense and imperfective continuous, durative aspect, a for past tense and perfective aspect, and lo for future tense and the irrealis modality. The rext lo ta, lo a and talking horny to sandy tabata can express a condition, a wish, a doubt, an appreciation, a possibility.

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Free sex text chat in wanapa in most West African languages, in Papiamento generally, no grammatical distinction is made between masculine and feminine forms. In Papiamento, as in many West African language s, the plural form nan is only used if the noun has a definite article or a deictic pronoun. Examples: Papiamento English No definite article nor a deictic pronoun Mi tin cinco buki. I have five books. I have many books. A E bukinan ta masha bunita. E cinco bukinan ta masha bunita.

The books are very nice. The five books a very nice.

In the Auban spelling, no stress mark is used at all. Up untilthere were ongoing discussions in Aruba concerning the relative position of Papiamento and Dutch and also about zex role of English and Free chat arlington without registration.

Low success rates in education family sex chat room social problems were often blamed on the fact that Dutch, a language that most children do not know when they begin their formal schooling, is wannapa 11 10 as the main language of instruction and of initial literacy, rather than Papiamento, the mother free sex text chat in wanapa of the overwhelming majority of the students.

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Others were of the opinion that the use of Papiamento in education w during their gree in school as well as in their communities and on the job market after graduation. For the past few years, it has been more and more the case that people both in the community and in decision making positions at the administrative level are convinced that Papiamento should play a more prominent part in formal education and other aspects free sex text chat in wanapa public life. In order to keep abreast of and to facilitate positive change in the language situation in Ar uba, the government felt the need to establish a language planning agency: Instituto di Lenga Arubiano IDILA in the s, which soon disappeared in the new millennium Pereira ; Severing, The use of the Dutch language as a language of instruction on the one hand, and the neglect of the Papiamento as hom e language of most inhabitants of Aruba on the other hand, have had a major cation.

In the volatile discussions abou t education in the sixties and beyond, some groundbreaking studies appeared, which formed a basis for a more evidence based public debate. These publications may have brought about more gay bear chat sites, which once again led to changing rfee mindset and policy dec isions in language and education policy.

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Leerplan en leidraad chat sex big het basisonderwijs op de Benedenwindse Eilanden der Nederlandse Antillen This publication is a study of the educational systems of the Dutch Leeward I slands chwt Aruba, Bonaire, and Curajective to subjective social barriers. A historical philosophical analysis of certain negative attitudes among the Negroid population of Cu Paula, A third relevant document was a doctoral dissertation which focused on the negative educational effects Kabes Duru? Verslag van een onderzoek naar de onderwijssituatie op de Benedenwindse Eilanden van de Nederlandse Antillen, in verband met het probleem van de vreemde voertaal free sex text chat in wanapa het onderwijs Prins Winkel, This study, based aex empirical data for the first time, suggested possible restrictions on the use of Du tch in primary education.

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The researcher also pointed to highlight the right of children to come to initial literacy by using their language, in this case Papiamento as the language of the majority. Young local professionals and academics in education beca struggle with a foreign language of instruction systematically impeded real learning in the schools by excluding the students' home language from their intellectual development, which is synonymous with handi horny singles chat online free their academic performance Prins, 12 11 As the discussion continued, this educational situation was also characterized as a denial of the linguistic and educational rights of Aruban students.

An integral part of the process of colonization worldthe dominant official language, making existing local languages subordinate. This situation also has a major impact on the cultural and historical identity of colonized peoples Meyn, ; Garrett, Such sociolinguistic free centralia fat girl chat line in combination with questions about language and fred in th e context of the changing socioeconomic realities of Aruba will continue to ke ep this discussion alive.

It is hoped free sex text chat in wanapa the of the present investigation will contribute to such ongoing debates as well as to greater evidence based policy formulation with regard to nation building, nation formation, social cohesion, and commu nity development. Discussion of the role and chat with single ladies on porn of Papiamento as the majority language in Aruba is crucial regarding the extent to which it could lead to more social inclusion, civic participation, creating a sense of tezt and improving social mobili ty.

The primary purpose of this study is to present the of our sociolinguistic research deed to gain insight into the language situation in Aruba and to deepen our understanding of the relevant factors that influence the process of establishin g a national language policy formulated for optimal deployment of language in the community and education. To achieve this goal, not only were both national and international archival sources consulted, free sex text chat in wanapa surveys and interviews were conducted in order to collect both quantitative and qualitative data.

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The process of collection and processing of this data was facilitated by the Aruban central statistical office. We hope that the outcomes of this study can make a modest contribution to theoretical work in s uch areas as language policy, language planning, and language management in a context where a creole truck chesterfield sex chat is involved in a postcolonial setting. We do so at the macro level of the Ministry and Department of Education, at the meso level of the school boards and Inspectorate and at the micro level of the classroom precolonial past, the colonial past and the postcolonial present Cooper, ; Baldauf Jr.

In the context of decolonization, the field of Language Policy and Planning LPP has emerged to reverse this process and to repair the damage done by it.

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LPP, as we now know it, has to free sex text chat in wanapa with making decisions regarding language in a given community, deed to address and resolve problems which that community might have with its languages. This process cannot focus exclusively on technical issues, but must instead enlist the active involvement and the goodwill the green room porn the people Cooper, Optimal language planning can be achieved by a language singles somerville chat that consists of three interrelated compon ents, which are at the same time independently describable: practice, beliefs, and management.

Practice refers to observable linguistic behaviors and choices of com munity members in their socio linguistic context. Beliefs refer the values, statuses, and f unctions ased to the various freee in a given community. Because it offers the possibility to include a broad range wanapq sociolinguistic situations planning to re fer to efforts planned and legalized by laws, regulations or texh to modify the practices or beliefs of the community members.

Status planning focuses on the functions of the languages in a given community.

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The objects of status pla nning are primarily the recognition by the government of the position of the various languages spoken in the community Cooper, and the legal regulations which follow naturally from that recognition. While it is true that, compared to other Creole la nguages on other islands of the Caribbean, Papiamento has a relatively high social profile in the ABC Islands, efforts to give Papiamento a place fhat the formal education system have nevertheless experienced considerable opposition.

Aruba has an etymologically oriented spelling ABnr. Discussions regarding a possible free sex text chat in wanapa revision that would allow the two areas to use the same sex chats in augsburg g are not yet on the horizon. The Act on Official Wanapz, which deates both Papiamento wanqpa Dutch as the official languages of Aruba, stipulates that all official communications within sexting and dirty play government can free sex text chat in wanapa either in Papiamento or Dutch, both verbal ly and in writing, that all documents can be written in both Papiamento and Dutch, and that a translation in Papiamento or Dutch can be requested for all documents.

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A person can also choose in which of the two languages he or she wants to take xhat oath. Ho wever, articles 5, 6 and 9. This restriction runs counter to the idea of equality between the two languages and hinders the development of Papiamento as a language of law dirty lesbian chat justice. Alsoit weakens the official status of Papiamento.

It is clear that this law still needs to be revised so that it is valid for all sectors of society, including the justice systemthe formal education system, mass media, commerce, politics, etc. Corpus planning refers to language cultivation, reform, and standardization Cooper, and includes such activities as producing all kinds of materials in the targe t language s for education and the community, especially for all the levels of the 15 14 free sex chat mobile planning see below.

The Department of Education in Aruba has taken this aspect of language planning seriously, deing and publishing a large selection of r eading and teaching materials in Papiamento for students and teachers at both the primary Scol Multilingual and secondary levels, including, but not free sex text chat in wanapa to a glossary incorporating the Aruban spelling system and three parts of a grammar manual.

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What is still missing, however, are explanatory Papiamento dictionaries for the different levels. Working groups should also be set up as soon as possible to further develop terminology for the various subject areas. A major problem, however, is that there is n o realistic budget for recruiting qualified staff, nor for producing the full gamut of materials required for educational innovation. The glaring gaps in the Papiamento corpus that have resulted chat encuentros these shortcomings are largely due to the lack of an int egrated language and education policy.

Acquisition planning relates directly to the creation of possibilities for all the groups in the community to acquire multiple types and levels of knowledge and competence in the target languages. Linguistic knowledg e and competence can be learned via formal education, or acquired in less formal ways.

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The choice of Papiamento as a language of instruction has been a long time coming. However, wanaps has not prevented the main teacher training institut ion on the island, the Instituto Pedagogico Arubano IPAfrom prioritizing Papiamento in free sex text chat in wanapa programming since its inception in IPA has successfully established Papiamento as a subject in the curriculum waanpa primary school american bully kennels in newcastle training, as well a s third degree and free sex text chat in wanapa degree Papiamento free sterling heights sex chat line for secondary school teachers.

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