This article addresses the history of transgender people in the United States from prior to western contact until the present.
There are a few historical s of transgender people that have been present in the land now known as the United States at least since the early s. Before Western contact, some Native American tribes had third gender people whose social roles varied from tribe to tribe. People dressing and living differently from their sex asment at birth and contributing to various aspects of American history and culture have been documented from the 17th century to the present day.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, advances in sex reasment surgery as well as transgender activism have influenced transgender life and the popular perception of transgender people in the United States. Some Native American Nations have longstanding names and roles for gender-variant or third-gender people. These roles only tend to exist in cultures that have rigid gender roleswhich is usually only seen in patriachal communities. While this new term has not been universally accepted—it has been criticized by traditional communities who already have their own terms for the people being grouped under this new term, and by those who reject what they call the "western" binary implications, such as implying that Natives believe these individuals are "both male and female"  —it has generally received more acceptance and use than the anthropological term it replaced.
One of the first documented inhabitants of the American colonies to challenge binary gender roles was Thomas ine Halla servant who, in the s, alternately dressed in both men's and women's clothing. Hall is likely to have been intersexand was ordered by the Virginia court to wear both a man's breeches and a woman's apron and cap at the same time. Inthe Public Universal Friend reported being genderless neither male nor femaledressed androgynously, and asked the followers they gained while preaching throughout New England over the next four decades not to refer to them by their birth name or gendered pronouns.
Generally, according to Genny Beemyn in a Transgender History of the United Statesthe few historical s of transgender people that exist in early American history are of female to male transgender people, possibly because it was more difficult for male to female people to successfully present as women before the advent of sex-reasment surgery and hormone treatments.
One example she cites is Mary Henly, a female-ased individual in Massachusetts who was charged with illegally wearing men's clothing in because it was "seeming to confound the course of nature".
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Joseph Lobdell born in as Lucy Ann Lobdell lived as a man for sixty years and due to this was arrested and incarcerated in an insane asylum. He was, however, able to marry a woman. Mary Jones born in as Peter Sewallya free African-American, was arrested in New York City in for dressing as a woman, prostitution, and pickpocketing.
According to a contemporary report in the New York WorldJones appeared in court "attired a la mode de New Yorkelegantly, and in perfect style.
Her or his dingy ears were decked with a pair of snow white ear rings, his head was ornamented with a wig of beautiful curly locks, and on it was a gilded comb, which was half hid amid the luxuriant crop of wool. A lithograph titled "The Man-Monster", showing Jones in female clothing, was published shortly afterwards.
During the American Civil War — at least people who were ased female at birth are known to have worn men's clothing and fought as soldiers. Many may have done so because they were not allowed to fight as women and this was their means of participating in the war effort. Some were transgender and continued to live as men throughout their lives. In a group of self-described androgynes in New York organized a club called the Cercle Hermaphroditosbased on their wish "to unite for defense against the world's bitter persecution".
The words "transsexual" and "transgender" had not yet been coined, and June described herself as a "fairie" or "androgyne", an individual, she said, "with male genitals", but whose "physical constitution" and sexual life "approach the female type". Murray Hall — was a politician in New York City for almost twenty-five years. After Hall's death, it was discovered that he had been ased female at birth.
Hall had been married twice and had an adopted daughter. Although his most recent wife had predeceased him, his daughter was described as "terribly shocked.
She said she always believed her foster father was a man, and never heard her foster mother say anything that would lead her to suspect otherwise. InDr. Alan L. Hartworking with psychiatrist Dr. Joshua Gilbert, was the first documented trans man in the United States to undergo hysterectomy and gonadectomyin order to live his life as a man. I have never concealed anything regarding my [change] to men's clothing I came home to show my friends that I am ashamed of nothing.
She served as a domestic worker in her teen years, eventually becoming a socialite and madame in Oxnard, California during the s and s. Inshe was tried in Ventura County for perjury and fraud for receiving spousal allotments from the military, as her dressing and presenting as a woman was considered masquerading. She lost the case, but avoided a lengthy jail sentence, only to be tried again by the federal government shortly thereafter.
She also lost this case, and was sentenced to jail time, along with her then husband Ruben Anderson. After serving their sentences, they relocated to Los Angeles, where they lived quietly until her death in Billy Tipton was a notable American jazz musician and bandleader who lived as a man in all aspects of his life from the s until his death. His own son did not know of his past until Tipton's death. The first newspaper article about Tipton was published the day after his funeral and was quickly picked up by wire services. Stories about Tipton appeared in a variety of papers including tabloids such as the National Enquirer and Staras well as more reputable papers such as New York Magazine and The Seattle Times.
Tipton's family also made talk show appearances. The s and s saw some of the first transgender organizations and publications, but law and medicine did not respond favorably to growing awareness of transgender people. The most famous American transgender person of the time was Christine Jorgensenwho in became the first widely publicized person to have undergone sex reasment surgery in this case, male to femalecreating a worldwide sensation. Virginia Princea transgender person who began living full time as a woman in San Francisco in the s, developed a widespread correspondence network with transgender people throughout Europe and the United States by the s.
She worked closely with Alfred Kinsey to bring the needs of transgender people to the attention of social scientists and sex reformers. Inusing Virginia Prince's correspondence network for its initial subscription list, a handful of other transgender people in Southern California launched Transvestia: Washington at memorial tamil sex chat Journal of the American Society for Equality in Dresswhich published two issues.
The Society that launched the journal also only briefly existed in Southern California. In Virginia Prince began another publication, also called Transvestiathat discussed transgender concerns. Inshe founded the Hose and Heels Club for cross-dressers, which soon changed its name to Phi Pi Epsilon, a name deed to evoke Greek-letter sororities and to play on the initials FPE, the acronym for Prince's philosophy of "Full Personality Expression". Prince believed that the binary gender system harmed both men and women by keeping them from their full human potential, and she considered cross-dressing to be one means of fixing this.
Reed Ericksona transsexual man, founded the Erickson Educational Foundation in EEF supplied information at no cost to transgender people, family members, and professionals and provided funding for the publication of Richard Green and John Money 's edited text Transsexualism and Sex Reasment and other books about sex and gender.
In the late s in New York, Mario Martino founded the Labyrinth Foundation Counseling Service, which was the first transgender community-based organization that specifically addressed the needs of transsexual men. Transgender people also gained some exposure through washington at memorial tamil sex chat culture, in particular the work of Andy Warhol.
In the s and early s the transgender actresses Holly Woodlawn and Candy Darling were among Warhol's Warhol Superstarsappearing in several of his films. On April 25,over people were denied service at Dewey's, a local coffee shop and diner at South 17th Street in Philadelphia, near Rittenhouse Square.
Those denied service were variously described at the time as "homosexuals", "masculine women", "feminine men", and "persons wearing non-conformist clothing". Three teenagers reported by the Janus Society and Drum magazine to be two males and one female staged a sit-in that day.
After restaurant managers contacted police, the three were arrested. In the process of offering legal support for the teens, local activist and president of the homophile organization the Janus Society, Clark Polak, was also arrested. Demonstrations took place outside the establishment over the next five days with flyers being distributed by the Janus Society and its supporters. Three people staged a second sit-in on May 2, The police were again called, but refused to make arrests this time.
The Janus Society said the protests were successful in preventing further arrests and the action was deemed "the first sit-in of its kind in the history of the United States" by Drum magazine. The following year, inone of the first recorded transgender riots in US history took place.
The night after the riot, more transgender people, hustlers, Tenderloin street people, and other members of the LGBT community ed in a picket of the cafeteria, which would not allow transgender people back in. The demonstration ended with the newly installed washington at memorial tamil sex chat windows being smashed again.
The riot marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco. Some people who later went on to be involved in transgender activism were involved in the Stonewall riots of at the Stonewall Inn in New York. This week-long violent uprising in the gay bars and streets of Greenwich Village is widely considered to be a turning point in for the LGBT rights movement in America, as it marked the transition from the more assimilationist, respectability politics of groups like the Mattachine Society and Daughters of Bilitis to the birth of the radical gay liberation movement and the founding of groups like the Gay Liberation Frontwith its Drag Queen Caucus, members of whom later founded Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries and the Queens Liberation Front.
Gender-nonconforming and trans activists including Marsha P. JohnsonZazu Nova and Jackie Hormona were confirmed to be "in the vanguard" of the rioting on the first night.
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Many support organizations for male cross-dressers began in the s and s, with most beginning as offshoots of Virginia Prince's organizations from the early s. TAO moved to Miami inwhere it came to include several Puerto Rican and Cuban members, and soon grew into the first international transgender community organization. It drew between 75, and transgender people, lesbians, bisexual people, gay men, and straight allies to demand equal civil rights and urge the passage of protective civil rights legislation.
The s also saw conflict between washington at memorial tamil sex chat transgender and lesbian communities in America. A dispute began inwhen the West Coast Lesbian Conference split over a scheduled performance by the lesbian transgender folk singer Beth Elliott. Raymond claimed this was done in order "to colonize feminist identification, culture, politics and sexuality", adding: "All transsexuals rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves Transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive.
Inprior to publication, Raymond had washington at memorial tamil sex chat a draft of the chapter attacking Stone to the Olivia collective "for comment", apparently in anticipation of outing Stone.
Raymond appeared unaware that Stone had informed the collective of her transgender status before agreeing to. The collective did return comments to Raymond, suggesting that her description of transgender people and of Stone's place in and effect on the collective was at odds with the reality of the collective's interaction with Stone. Raymond responded by increasing the virulence of her attack on Stone in the published version of the manuscript:. Masculine behavior is notably obtrusive. Sandy Stone, the transsexual engineer with Olivia Records, an "all-women" recording company, illustrates this well.
Stone is not only crucial to the Olivia enterprise but plays a very dominant role there. As one woman wrote: "I feel raped when Olivia passes off Sandy After all his male privilege, is he going to cash in on lesbian feminist culture too? The collective responded in turn by publicly defending Stone in various feminist publications of the time.